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Symmetrical Components

symmetrical-components

In power systems, it is a common occurrence that there are unbalanced voltages and currents on the distribution side of the grid. But these voltages and currents might be unbalanced anywhere through the grid in the case of a Fault, most commonly a short circuit fault. The simplest method to calculate the before mentioned quantities is a method termed "symmetrical per phase" technique and the concept is known as Symmetrical Components given by Fortescue's Theorem. It is also known as the "Three-component method".It can be described as:

 
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An unbalanced system of 'n' phasors can be resolved in an 'n' system of balanced phasors called the symmetrical components of the original system.

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Surge Protection Devices β€” Types | Role | Importance

SURGE_PROTECTION_DEVICES

With the expansion of electric power in today's world, electrical power systems are exposed to many critical conditions like overvoltages and voltage surges due to lightning strikes or abrupt switching conditions. The main concern is the overvoltage condition which can cause major damage to the system's equipment. Therefore, it is necessary to install a device that guarantees protection from the condition where over or under-voltage occurs.

A surge protector is a protective device that is connected to protect a system against overvoltage. It is the component of the electrical protection system and is used to protect equipment in power transmission and distribution systems. These devices, in general, protect the electrical equipment against voltage transients. 

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Short Circuit Calculations – Infinite bus method

Infinite-bus-method

Short Circuit

​The short circuit is essentially an abnormal condition within a power system in which a heavy amount of current flows through the circuit.

A short circuit usually occurs as a result of fault in a power system. The fault may be a conductor breaking and falling to the ground, or two or more electrical conductors coming in contact with each other.

Such faults result in the formation of a low resistance path for the current. This is a short circuit condition.

That is why short circuit calculations are mandatory as well as recommended practice of electrical preventive maintenance according to NFPA. (NFPA 70B chapter 9)

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Lockout Tagout

Lock-out-Tag-out

Lockout-Tagout Basics

As stated by the Occupational Health and Safety Administration OSHA, Lockout Tagout or LOTO is a set of specific practices and procedures to safeguard employees from the unexpected energization or the release of hazardous energy from equipment during service or maintenance activities.

The purpose of Lock out tagout is to protect the worker from any physical injury while maintaining a machine.

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Load Flow Analysis by AllumiaX

Load_Flow_Offering_and_Solution

What is Load flow?

Load flow, also known as Power Flow Analysis, is an essential method to examine the problems occurring in the power systems network or grid.

Load flow Analysis is performed to determine the state of the equipment present in the network in order to ensure their operation within the specified limits. This study solves the steady operation state with node voltages and branch power flow in the power system. 

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Power Factor - An Overview

PowerFactor123

​We often hear the term 'Power Factor' in electrical power systems. But, how do we define 'Power Factor' in an electrical world?

In this article, we will be discussing power factor in detail including its significance, adversity,
calculations and a few methods for improving power.

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Short Circuit and System Protection Studies with AllumiaX

offering-and-solution1

AllumiaX helps commercial and industrial facilities overcome the challenges of a rapidly growing industry by offering short circuit and arc flash hazard studies. Let's take a moment to learn about the significance of power system studies collectively.

A short circuit is a fault current that introduces a large amount of energy in a power system. The reliability and safety of power distribution systems depends on the accuracy and effectiveness of protective devices.

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AC vs. DC Which is more Dangerous?

ac-vs-dc-min

Many people argue over the intensity of AC and DC. Let us help you find out which of the two is more dangerous and why.

We will further discuss the reasons of electric shock, dangerous levels of ac and dc and their hazardous effect on our bodies. 

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OSHA VIOLATIONS

types-of-osha-violation_20190927-081736_1-min

Previously, we have written a detailed blog on safety measures by OSHA to protect workers. If you haven't checked it out, please Click here!

​OSHA is responsible for protection of workers including their health, safety at work, and managing healthy environment. OSHA has set standards for major safety concerns, and employers and employee must comply with the rules and regulations so everyone can go home safely. To complete the mission of safety of workers, OSH Act is enforced to secure and provide healthy working environment by the enforcement of laws and standards.

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Types of Transformer

types_of_transformer types_of_transformer

There are various types of transformer, each with its own applicable usage. However, the main objective of using them is the same – transforming electrical power from one type to another. In this blog, we will aim at enlightening the readers about Transformer basics and working principle, types of transformer on the basis of voltage, medium, uses, configuration and place of usage, their advantages and limitations.

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OSHA Safety Measures To Protect Workers

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​ The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States, Under the Department of Labor and was created by congress in 1971. OSHA is responsible for protection of workers including their health, safety at work, and managing heathy environment. In 1971, after the deaths of 1400+ workers and 2.5 million employees with disabilities each year, OSH Act is enforced to provide secure and healthy working environment by the enforcement of laws and standards and by the provision of training, education and support.

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All about Electrical Grounding Systems!

electrical-grounding-systems

​In this blog we will cover the Need of electrical grounding system, its importance, types of grounded system, common methods and the factors that effects the grounded system installation, safety tips etc. Simply, this blog is all about Electrical Grounding System.

The ground is the common point of return for an electrical flow. The grounding system is a backup pathway that has an alternate route for an electrical current to flow to ground due to any risk in the electrical system before it gets a fire or shock.

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POWER FLOW ANALYSIS

Power-Flow-Analysis
Power flow, or load flow, is widely used in power system operation and planning. The power flow model of a power system is built using the relevant network, load, and generation data. Power engineers are required to plan, design, and maintain the power system to operate reliably and within safe limits. Numerous power flow studies are required to en...
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Fault Analysis in Power Systems

fault-analysis-in-power-systems

Usually, a power system operates under balanced conditions with all equipment's carrying normal load currents and also the bus voltages inside the prescribed limits. This condition can be disrupted because of fault within the system. If the electrical fault current exceeds the interrupting rating of the protective device, the consequences can be devastating. It can be a serious threat to human life and is capable of causing injury, extensive equipment damage.

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Top 5 Advantages of Parallel Operation of Generators or Alternators

parallel-generator

As every field of life becomes more dependent on electric power to operate and grow, backup power systems, like generators, are playing a progressively vital role in guaranteeing uninterrupted supply of power. Generator selection greatly depends on the amount of backup power needed for a specific application. An application may need minimal supply of backup power to ensure uninterrupted functioning or it may need full power of the backup system. It is hard to find a generator that matches the application requirement exactly. This is one area where parallel generators can shine.

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Why Snubber Circuits are Required for Transformer Protection?

Engineers-can-be-employed-to-reliably-perform-transient-stability-studies-and-switching-transient-evaluations-for-power-transformer Engineers-can-be-employed-to-reliably-perform-transient-stability-studies-and-switching-transient-evaluations-for-power-transformer

Switching Transients or Transient Recovery Voltages may occur in certain situations and events occurring frequently in normal operations of a MV or HV industrial or commercial Power System. They may not be fatal in their first occurrence but prolonged exposure to transients will reduce lifespan of power system equipment. They may also disturb the stability of the power system putting the entire installation at a risk of shutdown or failure of certain equipment.

A snubber circuit is a proven way of reducing these transients and ensuring the protection of individual equipment and the wider system. Therefore, snubbers find their applications in many areas in a power system, in most cases becoming an indispensable component of it.

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Is it Sufficient to Use NFPA 70E Tables in Place of an Arc Flash Hazard Study?

The-Arc-Flash-Hazard

Under all circumstances, it is necessary to protect the working personal from dangers associated with live electricity installations. For this reason and to ensure compliance with the OSHA regulations, Arc flash hazard and electric shock hazards need to be evaluated and studied for every facility having an electrical installation.

An arc flash hazard can either be estimated using lookup tables given in the NFPA 70E guidelines or it can be calculated with much more accuracy by a calculation procedure outlined in the IEEE Standard 1584.

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The Importance of Equipment Maintenance Plan for Electrical Power Systems

electrical-equipment-maintenance-plan

Have you ever wondered about the importance of equipment maintenance plan and why is it necessary in Electrical power systems?

Today, we will talk in detail about the planned maintenance of electrical equipment and its importance. A maintenance plan covers a facility's routine maintenance, as well as the long term care of certain equipment or power systems inside of a facility.

In order to know about the details, you must first know about the definition of "Equipment Maintenance plan".

According to the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association); 

"Electrical equipment maintenance plan (EMP) is the practice of conducting routine inspections, tests, and the servicing of electrical equipment so that impending troubles can be detected and reduced or eliminated."

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Should You Open Energized Panel Covers?

electrical-panel-inspection-working-personnel

The practice of removing energized switchboard and panelboard covers when performing annual/quarterly/monthly maintenance has become a common place. De-energization cannot be stressed enough before all types of maintenance work on electrical equipment can be initiated. This is rarely due to the fact that the personnel are inexperienced or non-qualified for the job, but instead it's usually because of following the traditional method without question.

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IEEE 1584-2018 – In Depth Arc Flash Calculations Using Mathcad Express & Etap 19.0

arc-flash-hazard-test-on-PPE

Previously, we have written a detailed blog on the major changes in the newly approved IEEE 1584-2018 standard. If you haven't checked it out, please click here!

Now, in this blog we will explain the arc flash calculations which are used in the official standard of IEEE 1584-2018 in a very simple and intuitive manner.

Many Arc flash softwares including:

Performs Arc flash calculations in the back end and gives only the final result in the form of Tables, report and Arc flash labels. In this way, user will not be able to grasp the idea of manual calculations, but as a Power Systems Engineer or Protection engineer, you must know about the manual calculations, on which the whole arc flash study calculations rely or based upon.

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Most Popular Posts

Many people argue over the intensity of AC and DC. Let us help you find out which of the two is more dangerous and why.We will further discuss the reasons of electric shock, dangerous levels of ac and...
Current Transformer is an essential part of power system. The basics of current transformer including construction, applications,working principle are going to be discussed in this article. Moreover, ...
​We often hear the term 'Power Factor' in electrical power systems. But, how do we define 'Power Factor' in an electrical world?In this article, we will be discussing power factor in detail including ...
AllumiaX helps commercial and industrial facilities overcome the challenges of a rapidly growing industry by offering short circuit and arc flash hazard studies. Let's take a moment to learn about th...
What is Load flow?Load flow, also known as Power Flow Analysis, is an essential method to examine the problems occurring in the power systems network or grid.Load flow Analysis is performed to determi...