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Load Flow Study

Executive Summary

During the final stages of the planning and design of an industrial facility, it becomes imperative to know about the optimal operating conditions and the peak demand. During the commissioning & expansion phase, there is a high chance for the generating station to operate outside its specified power limits. Power blackouts can occur if proper loading conditions are not determined, causing major losses to utility companies worldwide.

A load flow study can be used to demonstrate the performance of the system under normal and emergency conditions. It is a steady state analysis of the electrical network which identifies key areas for improvement in loading conditions, thus ensuring safe operation of the power system.

Objective

A load flow study is used to develop and evaluate actual steady-state power system operating conditions in order to evaluate bus voltage profiles, real and reactive power flow, and losses.

Study Methodology

A load flow calculation is used to evaluate the state of a system for a given load and generation distribution. As the network distribution will vary noticeably during different time periods, it may be required to perform several load flow solutions pertaining to peak, light and average loading conditions. These solutions will be used to define either optimal operating modes for normal conditions or how the system will respond to abnormal conditions.

An initial model of the electrical network including the system components is first prepared. What follows is the development of a certain set of non-linear algebraic equations for each node. The solutions to these equations are then evaluated using iterative techniques like the Newton Raphson, Jacobian Matrix and Gauss-Seidel method, which results in the determination of the voltage profiles, phase angles, real and reactive power flows for each bus.

Study Outcomes & Recommendations

Load Flow studies will be in compliance with the latest IEEE and NEC standards. Study outcomes and recommendations are expected to improve the following areas of your facility:

  • Reliability of proposed generating station, substation and new transmission lines will increase
  • Enhancements to the facility through adjustments in system voltage levels and conductor sizes
  • Identification of the under/over loaded equipment for better optimization of power demand
  • Overall system operation costs are expected to decrease
  • Significant decrease in the system line losses
  • Optimal loading conditions through recommended tap settings for each transformer
  • Effective voltage regulation of the system through recommended governor set points

Study Deliverables

Our team of certified professional engineers have the expertise to investigate loading conditions and provide innovative engineering solutions for power flow optimization. We work closely with our clients to accurately study, model, test, validate, and recommend optimal load flow parameters for industrial & commercial facilities.

AllumiaX, LLC provides independent and third-party engineering support by presenting comprehensive deliverable reports backed by industry standards and best practices, analysis work based on industry-leading software (ETAP), and proven results based on accurate modelling and calculations.
Deliverables are expected to include the following:

  • An accurate facility model in modern power systems software
  • Comprehensive load flow parameters for each electrical point in the system
  • Evaluation of the general performance of the system under normal and emergency conditions
  • Calculations of the steady state voltages, phase angles and power flows to and from each bus
  • Solutions for optimal power flow throughout the network
  • Recommendations for the minimization of line losses
  • Recommendations for the mitigation of overloaded & underloaded conditions

References

  • NFPA 70, “National Electric Code” ,2017
  • NFPA70E, “Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace”, 2017

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